Centralized Municipal Wastewater Reuse Projects in Arid Areas with Emphasis on the Planning Process

R. Hranova (Botswana)


Municipal wastewater reuse, water resources management


The paper presents an outline of the different steps of the planning process of wastewater reuse projects with emphasis on the need for: 1) system analysis and the incorporation of this practice in the water cycle of the locality and the region; 2) development of several viable alternatives, provision for market assessment, and detailed technical and economic evaluation of each alternative; and 3) the need for sound regulatory instruments to support the project development and implementation. Specific aspects, characteristic for Botswana and developing countries in arid regions, are pointed out.

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