Taoufik Wassar, Tam´s Luspay, Kallu R. Upendar, Marc Moisi, Richard B. Voigt, Nicole R. Marques, Muzna N. Khan, Karolos M. Grigoriadis, Matthew A. Franchek, and George C. Kramer


  1. [1] L. Flancbaum, M. Dick, J. Dasta, R. Sinha, and P. Choban, A dose-response study of phenylephrine in critically ill, septic surgical patients, European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 51, 1997, 461–465.
  2. [2] A. Morelli, C. Ertmer, S. Rehberg, M. Lange, A. Orecchioni, A. Laderchi, A. Bachetoni, M. D’Alessandro, H.V. Aken, P. Pietropaoli, and M. Westphal, Phenylephrine versus norepinephrine for initial hemodynamic support of patients with septic shock: a randomized, controlled trial, Critical Care, 12, 2008, 143.
  3. [3] W.D. Ngan Kee, K.S. Khaw, F.F. Ng, and B.B. Lee, Prophylactic phenylephrine infusion for the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98, 2004, 815–821.
  4. [4] W.D. Ngan Kee, K.S. Khaw, and F.F. Ng, Prevention ofhypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: an effective technique using combination phenylephrine infusion and crystalloid cohydration, Anesthesiology, 103, 2005, 744–750.
  5. [5] J.F. das Neves, G.A. Monteiro, J.R. de Almeida, R.S.Sant’Anna, H.B. Bonin, and C.F. Macedo, Phenylephrine forblood pressure control in elective cesarean section: therapeutic versus prophylactic doses, Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia, 60, 2010, 391–398.
  6. [6] J.B. Slate and L.C. Sheppard, Automatic control of blood pressure by drug infusion, IEE Proceedings Part A, 129, 1982, 639–645.
  7. [7] S. Isaka and A.V. Sebald, Control strategies for arterial blood pressure regulation, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 40, 1993, 353–363.
  8. [8] J.M. Arnsparger, B.C. McInnis, J.R. Glover, N.A. Normann, Adaptive control of blood pressure, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 30, 1983, 168–176.
  9. [9] G.A. Pajunen, M. Steinmetz, R. Shankar, Model referenceadaptive control with constraints for postoperative blood pressure management, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engi-neering, 37, 1990, 679–687.
  10. [10] J. Hahn, T. Edison, and T.F. Edgar, Adaptive IMC control for drug infusion for biological systems, Control Engineering Practice, 10, 2002, 45–56.
  11. [11] K. Koji, K. Toru, U. Kazunori, S. Masaru, and S. Kenji, Adaptive predictive control of arterial blood pressure based on a neural network during acute hypotension, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 32, 2004, 1365–1383.
  12. [12] W.D. Ngan Kee, Y.H. Tam, K.S. Khaw, F.F. Ng, L.A. Critch-ley, and M.K. Karmakar, Closed-loop feedback computer controlled infusion of phenylephrine for maintaining blood pressure during spinal anaesthesia for a cesarean section: a preliminary descriptive study, Anaesthesia, 62, 2007, 1251–1256.
  13. [13] B. Sng, H. Tan, and A. Sia, Closed-loop double-vasopressor automated system vs manual bolus vasopressor to treat hypotension during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial, Anaesthesia, 69, 2014, 37–45.
  14. [14] D.W. Cooper, M. Carpenter, P. Mowbray, W. Desira, D. Ryall, and M. Kokri, Fetal and maternal effects of phenylephrine and ephedrine during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, Anesthesiology, 97, 2002, 1582–1590.
  15. [15] W.D. Ngan Kee, K.S. Khaw, F.F. Ng, and Y.H. Tam, Randomized comparison of closed-loop feedback computer-controlled with manual-controlled infusion of phenylephrine for maintaining arterial pressure during spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean delivery, British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110, 2013, 59–65.
  16. [16] J.B. Slate, Model-based design of a controller for infusing sodium nitroprusside during postsurgical hypertension, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 1980.
  17. [17] L. Ljung, System Identification: Theory for the user, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999).
  18. [18] G.C. Goodwin and K.S. Sin, Adaptive filtering, Prediction and control, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982).
  19. [19] M. G¨orges, D.R. Westenskow, K. K¨uck, and J.A. Orr, A tool predicting future mean arterial blood pressure values improves the titration of vasoactive drugs, Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 24, 2010, 223–235.
  20. [20] H. Nyquist, Regeneration theory, Bell System Technical Journal, 11, 1932, 126–147.
  21. [21] H.A. Khalil, D.T. Kerr, M.A. Franchek, R.W. Metcalfe, R.J. Benkowski, W.E. Cohn, E. Tuzun, B. Radovancevic, O.H.Frazier, and K.A. Kadipasaoglu, Continuous flow total artificial heart: Modeling and feedback control in a mock circulatory system, ASAIO Journal, 54, 2008, 249–255.
  22. [22] W.S. Levine, The control handbook, 2nd ed. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2010).
  23. [23] X.L. Li, J.G. Park, and H.B. Shin, Comparison and evaluation of anti-windup PI controllers. Journal of Power Electronics, 11, 2011, 45–50.
  24. [24] T. Luspay and K.M. Grigoriadis, Design and validation of an extended Kalman filter for estimating hemodynamic variables, American Control Conf., Portland, OR, USA, 2014.
  25. [25] J. Varvel, D. Donoho, and S. Shafer, Measuring the predictive performance of computer-controlled infusion pumps, Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics, 20, 1992, 63–94.

Important Links:

Go Back