Muhammad U. Asad,∗ Umar Farooq,∗ Jason Gu,∗ Rong Liu,∗∗ Ghulam Abbas,∗∗∗ and Valentina E. Balas∗∗∗∗


State convergence, composite variables, disturbance observer, tele- operation ∗ Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dal- housie University, Halifax, Canada NS B3H4R2; e-mail: usmanasad01@hotmail.com, engr.umarfarooq@yahoo.com, Jason.gu@dal.ca ∗∗ Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China; e-mail: rliu@dlut.edu.cn ∗∗∗ Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan; e-mail: ghulam.abbas@ee.uol


Based on composite variables, three-channel state convergence is a novel architecture for the bilateral control of teleoperation systems modelled on state space. Although simple to design and easy to implement, this bilateral control algorithm relies on model parame- ters. To lower this dependence, this article proposes a disturbance- observer-supported three-channel state convergence architecture. At first, extended state observers are used for estimating position and velocity states of master and slave systems along with their lumped uncertainties. These position and velocity estimates are then fused to form composite variables which are transmitted along with the operator’s force. With the knowledge of composite variables and the estimates of uncertainties, bilateral control laws are developed for the master and slave systems by following the method of state con- vergence. To validate the proposal, simulations as well as semi-real- time experiments are performed in MATLAB/Simulink environment by considering a single degree-of-freedom time-delayed teleoperation system.

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