A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ENERGY STORAGE BATTERIES AND HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

A.E.-M.M. Abd El-Aal∗

Keywords

Batteries, hydrogen fuel cells, capacity, efficiency, cost, modularity, capability, simulation model

Abstract

The fluctuating nature of solar radiation means that the photovoltaic power supplies are unpredictable. Therefore, the output power from solar cell array varies between zero and its maximum value independent of demand. In most cases storage of the generated solar cells energy is required. For grid-connected solar cell systems, the public utility grid acts as an energy storage unit. However, for standalone solar cell systems, batteries or hydrogen fuel cell for energy storage is applied to achieve a continual electrical energy supply. Many researchers studied the different energy storage technologies and gave a general comparison between them. This paper is concentrated on a comparison between batteries and hydrogen fuel cell system as energy storage for photovoltaic power system. The common characteristics that will be discussed in this paper are modularity, reliability, fast load response capability and flexibility in site section. The different characteristics are efficiency, capacity, cost, environmental externally and flexibility in operation. A leadacid battery simulation model for discharging is presented in the paper. The model takes into account the battery voltage dependency on the capacity and current. Also, electrical model of fuel cell has been modelled according to a theoretical point of view. This model enables to simulate fuel cell characteristic curves.

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