A Solution for Hole Diffusion Problem Faced by Geographic Routing Scheme

F. Yu, S. Park, E. Lee, M. Jin, and S.-H. Kim (Korea)


Wireless sensor networks, geographic routing, void areas


Geographic routing has been addressed in many literatures of ad hoc sensor networks due to its efficiency and scalability. Void areas (holes) bring Geographic routing several problems such as data collision and excessive energy consumption of hole boundary nodes. Holes are hardly avoided in wireless sensor networks because of various actual geographical environments, e.g. puddles, buildings or obstacles, or uneven energy consumption, even physical destruction. To bypass holes, most existing geographic routing protocols tend to route data packets along the boundaries of holes by perimeter routing scheme. This scheme, on one hand, consumes more energy of the nodes on the boundaries of holes, thus possibly enlarging the holes, we call this hole diffusion problem; on the other hand, it may incur data collisions if multiple communication sessions are bypassing a hole simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a Solution for Hole Diffusion Problem faced by geographic routing in wireless sensor networks. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol is superior to other protocols in terms of packet deliver ratio, control overhead, average delivery delay, and energy consumption.

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