Integrated Applications of Decentralized Solutions to Municipal Wastewater Systems in Developing Countries with Arid Climates

R. Hranova (Botswana)


Wastewater systems, wastewater reuse, urban planning


The paper presents different alternatives for technical solutions in decentralized wastewater systems. Integration is sought out in terms of a holistic approach to the system formulation, including wastewater generation, quantitative assessment, collection, transportation, treatment and reuse option. Two levels of spatial magnitude of the system are discussed: the on-site level of treatment of residential, commercial, and institutional wastewater, and at neighbourhood level, with options of separation of gray and black water in both cases. The need to link urban development plans to the type of wastewater system is underlined.

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