CAS Phenomena and Evolutionary Activity in Holland's Echo

L. Graham and F. Oppacher (Canada)


Complex adaptive systems, Echo, aLife, emergence


This paper describes some details of an implementation of John Holland's class of agent-based models for complex adaptive systems (cas), called Echo, and some of the observed cas phenomena it has produced. It shows that, as Holland intended, the Echo framework seems indeed capable of producing models that exhibit behavior indicative of cas, and of biological evolution in particular. The approach taken is to examine population and activity graphs from several runs and locate a handful of cas-like phenomena that appear to be exhibited.

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