S. Czapp∗


  1. [1] HD 60364-4-41:2007 Low-voltage electrical installations – Part4-41: Protection for safety – Protection against electric shock.
  2. [2] S. Czapp & R. Roskosz, Analysis of measurement accuracyof power system loop impedance using resistive measurementload, The Scientific Papers of Faculty of Electrical and ControlEngineering Gdansk University of Technology, 17, 2001, 11–18(in Polish).
  3. [3] P. Danzer, Impedance measurement in low voltage systems.Proc. 5th International Symposium on Short Circuit, 1, War-saw, 1992.
  4. [4] A. Golijanek-J drzejczyk & R. Roskosz, Arrangement for cal-ibration the loop impedance meters, The Scientific Papers ofFaculty of Electrical and Control Engineering Gdansk Univer-sity of Technology, 21, 2005, 111–118 (in Polish).
  5. [5] O. Malyszko, A new method of power system short-circuitimpedance measurement, Wiadomo´sci Elektrotechniczne,74(3), 2006, 36–38 (in Polish).
  6. [6] J. Masny, Measurement of short-circuit loop impedance, Gospo-darka Paliwami i Energia, 7, 1987 (in Polish).
  7. [7] Z. Nawrocki & A. Stafiniak, Determination of the metrologicalparameters of short-circuit impedance and resistance meters.Proc. 14th Conf. ELSAF2003, Wrocław, 2003, 159–164 (inPolish).
  8. [8] K.O.H. Pedersen, A.H. Nielsen, & N.K. Poulsen, Short-circuitimpedance measurement, IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib.,150(2), 2003, 169–174.
  9. [9] J.P. Rhode, A.W Kelley, & M.E. Baran, Complete charac-terization of utilization – voltage power system impedanceusing wideband measurement, IEEE Transactions on IndustryApplications, 33(6), 1997, 1472–1479.
  10. [10] R. Roskosz, The method of earth fault loop impedance mea-surement using short duration testing current. Proc. 23rd Uni-versities Power Engineering Conference, Nothingham, TrentPolitechnic, September 20–22, 1988.
  11. [11] R. Roskosz, Measurement of the short-circuit loop impedancein presence of distortion network voltage waveform, PrzegladElektrotechniczny, 80(10), 2004, 995–998 (in Polish).
  12. [12] R. Roskosz & M. Zi´ołko, Measurement accuracy of short-circuitloop impedance in power systems, Proc. 17th IMEKO WorldCongress, Dubrovnik, 2003, 903–907.
  13. [13] R. Roskosz, L. Referowski, & S. Czapp, Main error sources inearth loop impedance measurements, Proc. 3rd InternationalScientific Conference ELEKTRO’99, Section: FundamentalPhenomena and Principles for Applications in Electrical Engi-neering, University of ˇZilina. Faculty of Electrical Engineering,ˇZilina, 1999.
  14. [14] IEC 61557-3:2007 Electrical safety in low voltage distributionsystems up to 1000 V a.c. and 1500 V d.c. – Equipment fortesting, measuring or monitoring of protective measures – Part3: Loop impedance.
  15. [15] S. Czapp, R. Roskosz, & A. Skiba, Vectorial method formeasurement of short-circuit loop impedance in network withoperating load. Proc. 16th IMEKO World Congress, 4th Mea-surement of Electrical Quantities International MeasurementConfederation, IMEKO 2000, Vienna, 2000.
  16. [16] S. Czapp, Earth fault loop impedance measurement in networkwith operating loads using the vectorial method. Proc. 11thInternational Scientific Conference. Present-Day Problems ofPower Engineering APE’03. Gda´nsk University of Technology,Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering, Gda´nsk – Jurata,2003, 4, 237–242 (in Polish).
  17. [17] S. Czapp, Vectorial method for measurement short-circuit loopimpedance in network with disturbances, Archiwum Energetyki,32(1–2), 2003, 43–62 (in Polish).

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