Effect of Nose-Cone Shape on Impact and Ricocheting of a Cannonball Colliding with Sea Surface

Han Seok Bang, Soung Min Chung, Jae Won Jeon, Woo Chun Choi, Hae Suk Lee, and Yeon Sik Cho


Cannonball, Nose-cone, Ricochet, Collision, Impact


When a cannonball collides with sea water, the resulting impact force influences the cannonball trajectory, depending on launching angle, initial firing speed, incident angle, and cannonball nose-cone shape. In this study, the effect of nose-cone shape of a cannonball on impact and ricocheting behavior was investigated. During collision, the flow is assumed to be non-viscous and incompressible, and a source panel method is used to determine velocity potential and pressure coefficient. The nose-cone shape was expressed by Haack-series. It is found that as the radius of curvature of a cannonball nose-cone decreases, a high impact force is resulted, and that the ricocheting distance varies depending on impact force and impulse. The results obtained in this study can be used in developing new cannonballs.

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