A Framework for Learning Model Innovation using Knowledge Engineering

G.A. Santana Torrellas (Mexico)


Learning Models, Knowledge Engineering, Organisational Practice.


The changing learning environment, characterised by dynamically discontinuous change, requires a re conceptualisation of knowledge management systems, as they have been understood in information system practice and research. One such conceptualisation is proposed in this article in the form of a framework for developing organisational knowledge management system for learning model innovation. The subsequent section discusses the demands imposed by the new learning environments that require rethinking such conceptualisations of knowledge management and related information technology based systems. A variety of conceptual frameworks can be useful in planning and designing learning processes and knowledge management, between them Building a Knowledge Base and Changing Organisational Practice. The information-processing view of knowledge management has been prevalent in information system’s practice and research over the last few decades. Identification of categories of knowledge needed to support the overall learning strategy, assessment of current state of the firm's knowledge and transformation of the current knowledge base into a new and more powerful knowledge base by filling knowledge gaps. Beyond Existing Myths about Knowledge Management the information-processing view of knowledge management has propagated some dangerous myths about knowledge management. Myth 1: Knowledge management technologies can deliver the right information to the right person at the right time. This idea applies to an outdated learning model. Myth 2: Knowledge management technologies can store human intelligence and experience. Myth 3: Knowledge management technologies can distribute human intelligence. By considering the meaning of knowledge as "unproblematic, predefined, and pre-packaged", such interpretations of knowledge management have ignored the human dimension of organisational knowledge creation. To distinguish from the information-processing paradigm of knowledge management discussed earlier, the proposed paradigm will be denoted as the sense-making paradigm of knowledge management. Knowledge management systems based upon the Hegelian inquiry systems, would facilitate multiple and contradictory interpretations of the focal information. Human Aspects of Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Renewal Knowledge management technologies based upon the information-processing model are limited in the capabilities for creation of new knowledge or renewal of existing knowledge. Examples of technologies that are based on a high level of integration such as ERP technologies represent knowledge management technologies based upon the information-processing model. The human aspects of knowledge creation and knowledge renewal that are difficult -- if not impossible -- to replace by knowledge management technologies are listed below. The information-processing model of knowledge management is devoid of such capabilities that are essential for continuous learning and unlearning mandated by radical and discontinuous change. Untapped Tacit Dimensions Of Knowledge Creation: The information-processing model of knowledge management ignores tacit knowledge deeply rooted in the individual's action and experience, ideals, values, or emotions. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) have suggested that knowledge is created through four different modes. Constructive aspects of Knowledge Creation and Renewal considered the information-processing model of knowledge management ignores the constructive nature of knowledge creation and instead assumes a pre-specified meaning of the memorised 'best practices' devoid of ambiguity or contradiction. The dominant model of inquiring systems downplays the constructive nature of knowledge creation and action. The need for better understanding of human factors underpinning performance of knowledge management technologies is also supported by our observation of informal ‘knowledge sharing’ virtual communities of practice affiliated with various Net-based learning’s and related innovative learning models. Knowledge management activities are adding value to organisations by enhancing innovation and innovativeness.

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